“Th. Muivah’s Arrow: Limson Haika, Naga Task Front”

The Naga National Fighters are NSCN/GPRN the fire branders in the entire North-Eastern States. In 1960s-‘80s, the most wanted Leaders like Th. Muivah, Angelus Shimray and others were declared as wanted absconders on their heads (Rs.50, 000/- Rs.30, 000/- & so on). Others were hotly hunted by the Manipur Govt. along with the Indian Armies, like the 8th Guards, Kumaon Regt., Sikh Regt., in collaboration with Assam Rifles, Manipur Rifles & Police. More than 20,000 well Armed Forces had hunted them but failed to do so. Consequences of these unlawful Indian Armed Forces led to loss of hundred and thousand lives and at the end claims were mentioned that weapons were also looted in the ambushed incidents.

In those anger & critical days, the Manipur Govt. banned Moreh canvas shoes. Any person wearing canvas shoes like “PLA” company were suspected to be underground personnel will be put him/her behind the bar. Even electric wire etc. to be taken from Imphal to hill areas were also cut off or totally banned. Anyone found carrying more than 5Kgs of salt, sugar, kerosene, rice, potato, etc. were arrested and the items confiscated. Moreover, in those hectic years, Manipur Meiteis had a good laugh with New Delhi by the blessing of Maharaj Bodhachandra and Imphal Valley became a paradise of Jewels enshrined in Ministers Atombis; Ahumshubis; Mangashubis… wife’s necklaces and put it on their necks for show off, whereas the hills/Nagas were burning under the hell of repressive measures of AFSPA. Moreover, many Naga girls were tortured with discriminate insertion even on their private parts by the Indian Army Officers particularly Tangkhul girls, Oinam Girls and others, for refusing and resisting gang rapes. Besides, many, many extremely unbearable treatments like electric shocking at private parts, inserting pins downward between finger nails and flesh, and on top of that indiscriminately torturing thousands had been meted to the hill people especially Naga areas of Senapati Dist., Ukhrul Dist., Chandel Dist., and Tamenglong Dist. respectively.

Today’s “Casually” Culture in Manipur:
The Gun-Culture created in the valley made the Meiteis unrest and agitated on fake-encounters, torturing, killings, terrorist acts etc. tuning “PeAcE-pEaCe-peace-PEACEe”. When the Nagas cry they laugh and when Nagas are in the truce of Peace Talks with the GOI, they are jealous about it. So the Govt. of Manipur had to send IRBs & CDOs to hill areas in order to impost disturbances, mental harassments and disorders as well destroy harmony and friendship among the communities who are living together with love, peace and tranquility. Cabinets’ decisions are to erase the peaceful atmosphere in the hills. Is it this democratic?
The people of Manipur are living under the shadow of the gun-culture for a long time. Generally, anyone who wants to voice dissent is silenced or tortured by the state machinery. Yes, there are insurgency problems that need to be tackled, but mindless killing is not solution. Though India’s Independence is entering almost PLATINUM JUBILEE but the people of Manipur have no birth right to live accept in and with fear. If killing innocent citizens was the only solution, then why have the insurgency problems not subsided? Civilians never heard about undergrounds killing innocents/IRBs/CDOs/Indian Forces accept State Sponsored Security Personnel; but heard once in two/three years. If the feelings of distrust, anger, fear and revenge among the people are not addressed; the situation will only be worse day by day till the 2nd generation. The GOM should be the protector not the tormentor of the public. Ibobi’s term of rulling is for 5 (five) yrs only but Muvah’s Prime Minister of Nagalim for life time till Nagas “LIM” is declare as independent.
Frequently, all political parties of Manipur are quick to call the youths for misleading. It is unfortunate to state that the politicians are never asking for aspirations and hopes accept “Forum for Naga Reconciliation” (FNR). In the valley, 90% mothers are worried about their son(s) & daughter(s) attending college fearing that they might not return home or might be found dead in a similar like fake encounter and what else?

The logic of Jewel’s Manipur-Leaders:
Chief is thief. So, Thief Minister O. Ibobi the Lucifer and his descendent DGP Y. Joykumar are the most horrible species in Manipur worse of the worst; a kind of virus that should be swept way from this living soil and Mr. Biren the Ravan of Manipur speaking against the Nagas seems that Nagas would be treated like a stolen Sita; What a funny? Y. Irabot the hero of today cannot die like Hijam Irabot who sacrificed his life for the sake better Manipur. MPPs cannot fast like Irom Sharmila. “Politics is not a dirty game but when these dirty politicians play, then Manipur is corrupted”.
It is estimated that about 300 people have been killed in Manipur in 2009 alone between insurgents and state forces. But nobody dares to raise any question. People suspect things, but lacking of proof, they look away. Every time when someone dies, the neighborhood constitutes a Joint Action Committee (JAC). Token protests are made, sometimes followed by token compensation and everyone tries to live on. Mostly this happens in the valley. Any person who produces proof will be corrupted or might be caught in another fake encounter. If not, why Chongkham Sanjit a former insurgent and Rabina Devi (five months pregnant holding her 2yr-old son) were killed at Khwairambam Bazar on July 23rd 2009 and in the next daily-paper mentioned Sanjit was killed in a fake encounter.
Mr. Lucifer the serpent snake had tabled stating, “Sanjit, a member of PLA, a proscribe militant outfit, had shot five civilians while trying to escape a police frisking but Manipur’s brave CDOs had killed him in an encounter. A 9mm Mauser was found on him”. The Lucifer Thief Minister had also stated that, there was no way to stem the menace of insurgents except to “ELIMINATE” them. The opposition swallowed the story without question. Everyone went back to business. Within a few weeks TEHELKA exposed the incidents with photos. Later the protest was imposed strongly, leading to the closure of all schools, colleges, computer institutes etc. from August to December or till January. The outcomes of protests fell on thousands of students who bore the fruits of career loss plus mental harassment.

Who are Terrorist?:
The Scheduled Section 2(1)(m) nad 35
Terrorist Organisations:

1. Barbar Khalsa International
2. Khalistan Commando Force
3. Khalistan Zindabad Force
4. International Sikh Youth Federation
5. Lashkar-E- Taiba/Pasban-E-Ahle Hadis
6. Jaish-E-Mohammed/Tahrik-E-Islami
7. Karkat-Ul-Mujahideen/Harkat-Ul-Ansar/Harkat-Ul-Jehad-E-Islami
8. Hizb-Ul-Mujahideen/Hizb-Ul-Mujahideen Pir Panjal Regiment
9. Al-Umar-Mujahideen
10. Jammu & Kashmir Islamic Front
11. United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA)
12. National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB)
13. People’s Liberation Army (PLA)
14. United Liberation Front (UNLF)
15. People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK)
16. Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP)
17. Kanglei Yaol Knaba Lup (KYKL)
18. Manipur People’s Liberation Front (MPLF)
19. All Tripura Tiger Force
20. National Revolution Front of Tripura
21. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
22. Students Islamic Movement of India
23. Deendar Anjuman
24. Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist) People’s War, All Its information’s and Front Organizations
25. Maoist Communist Centre (MCC), All Its Formations and Front Organizations
27. Jamiat-Ul-Mujahidden
28. Al Qaida
29. Dukhtaran-E-Millat (DEM)
30. Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (TNLA)
31. Tamil National Retrival Troops (TNRT)
32. Akhil Bharat Nepali Ekta Samaj (ABNES)

Sourced from: Cheirom Ranjit “Unrest in Manipur” Published by himself printed at Amar Offset Printed Uripok Imphal, cover designed Amar Offset Printers (P.225) Nov. 2004

Terrorism is one of the greatest concerns of today, but more so when it is committed by the State Securities. This had existed for years in the state, may be lesser known by the world. It is very casually taken for granted on the human rights violations. People are agonized by extortions, murders and threats by militants and NOW by IRBs & CDOs.

If 23rd July, 2009 incidents were priority, how about 12th April, 2010?
In the case of killing Sanjit, one of the lawyers (let me not mention his name) had said: “I’ve seen this pistol ten times, ashi nattaba atoppa pistol leitra’jatla?” but he never made any claim earlier even when he had seen that 9mm Muaser though several times in the court because he was already paid by Lucifer’s powerful Uncle Ganhiji red-passports.
If Sanjit’s issue is priority in the state then what about Naga leaders -Samson Prez-UNC and David Prez-ANSAM who are fighting for the interest of the Tribal Rights. Is it justifiable to declare them “wanted” with cash award of Rs. 1 Lac each? PIL No.8 of 2010 was tabled in the court of Guwahati High Court Imphal petitioner by Shri. Raj Kumar Joysana Singh, aged 60, about years S/o (L) R.K. Sanatomba Singh of Moirangkhom Sougaijam Leikai, Yaiskul Imphal P.O. & P.S. Imphal West, West District and sitting in the Imphal bench are also Meitei and the hearing was also done by a Meitei. ADC was boycotted for “no 6th scheduled; no election” now 20 years has passed and nothing implemented for the welfare of the Tribles. In terms of huge amount hundreds & crore were misused by the Meiteis Officials, Politicians, Contractors in order to develops Hill Areas. The PIL was issued in the self interest of Shri. Raj Kumar Joysana Singh against the Prez-ATSUM Thomas and Prez-ANSAM David Choro. But how comes the UNC-Prez as wanted tag? Does Joysana know the history of Rajkumar, Maharaj Kumar and Singh?

A little notes always to remember if not believable!
If Nagas are single out in Manipur then who are the blunders of the state? Is it Biharis, Malwaris or who else if Kukis and Meiteis are always right? What about Pangals? Is it not the British, the Meiteis and the Kukis?
The British imperialists wanted to use Manipur as a buffer zone both against the Burmese and the frontier tribes/Naga. After the conclusion of the treaty Yandaboo in 1826 and the annexation of Assam in the same year, the colonial authorities at Fort William began to formulate many propositions for the defense of their frontier, particularly against the hills tribes (Naga & Lushai).

1. In 1833, by the treaty the colonial officials agreed to give the Manipur Maharaja the line of Jiri river and the most dominant population of this region are the Hmars & Paite who belonged to Chin-Mizo group during the historical period of the frontier tribes; Thadou speaking Kukis were perhaps the most ferocious and war-like people. Therefore, at the suggestion of General Lister, the Kuki Levy was raised in 1850 partly as a force to be used against the Lushais and Nagas and partly to give employment to the youth of the Kuki tribes whose love for fighting would then be legitimately gratified in defending the frontier instead of murdering their neighbors, as had been their custom from time immemorial. Major Stewart commanded the Levy for some years which was later amalgamated with the police in 1869. The then Meitei Raja deputed 110 Kukis into the Lushai Hills and others to Naga hills (now, Tamenglong Dist., Ukhrul Dist., Senpati Dist., and Chandel Dist.). Obviously to harass them so that the Maharaja expands his power against the Hill tribes and crossed the Nagas dominant areas and Lushai hills for route-safeguard. They surprised a party of Lushais asleep, killed 40 of them and carried off a lot of arms 17 muskets, many of them with tower-mark but cannot attacked Nagas. At this, both western and Eastern chiefs of Lushais sent 3 Lushais to feel the way to a reconciliation with Manipur, promising to restore all the prisoners and 30 guns which they collected during the raids on Manipur in Feb. 1869. Dr. Brown, the then Political Agent however, advised the Raja “to make no promises whatever, but to say to the messengers that on the delivery of the captives, guns, etc., the Manipur Govt. would then hear what they had to say, regarding the peace for the future. The messengers had also been informed in addition that they should return everything in their hands and were genuinely desirous of making peace, their chiefs and headmen must come, as it was with them that any negotiation would be carried on”. The Viceroy and Governor-in-council was inclined to approve of the establishment of a permanent peace between the state of Manipur and Lushais and, for that matter, any other frontier tribes like Nagas and Lushais had to give guarantees that no further raids would be committed either in British or in Manipur territory. While their negotiation was going on some Lushais committed another raid on the village near Moirang in Dec. 1869 to take vengeance for raid of the Manipur Kukis on Lushais in March, 1869.

2. The govt. of Manipur again sent a deputation consisting of 3 Manipuris, 3 Koms and 2 Lushais under the leadership of Amu Subedar to find out who committed the last raid. While pleading their non-involvement, Pawibawi and Vanhnuailal cast the blame of the last raid on the Pawis. As regards to the earlier raids, the two chiefs told the Manipuri/Meitei messengers that they had offered presents to the Raja and desired peace but at the same time, they insisted that they would not give up any prisoners or guns taken form the Manipuris. In anger, they asked: “why should the Manipuri Raja want more? If you do not agree to this, we will take possession of the Cachar road, and not allow any one to pass between it and Manipur. We will utterly destroy the Khongjai tribe of Kukis; we will invade the Manipur valley, make coolies of the Manipuris, and eat all their ponies and cattle”.

3. To this Amu retorted thus: “the Lushais had commenced disturbances and had committed the fault; but if they desired to renew hostilities, they might do so, as we were not afraid of them…” Norindrajit, a former of Manipuri raider and pretender who was transported by the British in 1857 or 1858 had arrived among the Lushais and stayed then in Vanhnuailal’s village and the Lushai chiefs said, “He (Norindrajit) will accompany us when we attack Manipur”. Summing up the core situations. Dr. Brown, in his letter to C.U. Aitchson, officiating secretary to the Govt. of India, reported thus. “Every security that is likely to prevent a repetition of the late disturbance should be taken from this tribe and every effort should be made to obtain further the submission of other tribes, who should also be required to give guarantees that no further raids will be committed either in British or in Manipur territory. I am inclined to think that the threat of invasion is not likely to be carried out, but precautions will be taken to meet such a contingency. The chief Vanhnuailal’s has given in his adhesion to the views of the other chiefs looks ominous, as hitherto he has remained neutral, if not friendly”. In the meantime, on receiving, J.W. Edgar’s (Deputy Commissioner of Cachar) proposal regarding the future relations between Manipur and Lushai Hills, the Lt. Governor of Bengal laid down that the Political Agent at Manipur had to see that no aggression on his part could be permitted, and that he must also take effective steps to make his subject Kukis understand this, and to punish rigorously any disobedience of these instructions. This was precisely the policy to be followed by Manipur in regard to the Lushais in future and it was finally endorsed by the Govt. of India in a letter to the Political Agent of Manipur on 30th June 1870.

Who are the blunders of Manipur or why a communal riot was created in the state?
A Naga Kuki deadly clash was in 1892, Eastern Manipur Chingjaroi Naga Mao, Maram etc. and Western Manipur Naga Kabui attacked by the Kukis hired by Meitei Maha Raja so that he could travel Kabaw & Cachar.
1880 Feb. Tangkhul Ching Sao was attacked by well-armed Kukis snponsored by the Maha Raja.
When the British planned to draft labors from the Manipur hills/Nagas for the employment of with the army in France, Kukis objected and formed kuki Rebellion in 1917 but why to blamed Nagas?
1917, 2000 Nagas from Manipur & 2000 from Naga Hills (Nagaland) with some 30-Lambus for interpreters and their leaders was dispatched to France under the Command of Lt. Col. Cole in May.
Nagas are blamed for killing and displacing Kukis by Kim but Nagas also suffered similar cruelty at the hands of the Kukis, during the Kuki-Naga ethnic clash. Moreover, triple 900 Nagas were killed during Kuki Rebellion (1917-’19) in 4-present Districts of Manipur by the so called Kuki freedom fighters behind the master planned of Meitei Maharaj. Churachandpur Maharaj issued 600 muzzle loading guns to those 2000 Kukis irregulars during the conflict, responsible for the massacre. And later, the Kuki troops Gen. Ngulkhup Haokip of Lonpi was arrested by the British who declared war against the British.
NSCN & KNA conflict Kuki-Naga ethnic clashes was raised till 1992-97/98. 27th July 1996 Kukis and Nagas are Christian and believes in and followers of Christ. Being the Mongoloids Race and thus they racially and religiously one only, mentioned in the joint letter with CM Rishang Keishing and Excess Minister Ngamthang Haokip, KIM President Holkhomang Haokip, UNC President G. Gaingam for the sake of “Our Race; Our State; Our Humanity and above all we the sake of Our Lord Christ, we call upon those involved directly or indirectly in Kuki-Naga ethnic clashes to stop forthwith all such acts and never more to return to the cult of violence. Enough is enough and it must be stopped here now. Let us start all together a new life of peace, harmony and amity among Kukis and Nagas. Let there be no more killings” said the letter. Thus, 1997 ended the clashes.
3rd May 1993, Meitei V/s Pangal communal riot was raised by Meiteis Lilong.
Zomis-Kukis clashes; ZRA V/s KNF 25 Sept. 2000. 1997, KNF attacked Saikul Paite village CCpur on 24th June. Cease fire Agreement KNF and ZRA on Aug. 1997 “Peace Accord” 1st Oct. 1998 with KIM and ZOMI Council.
In 2000, because of bombing, killing, attacking to Indian Forces…….. Irom Sharamila went on fast into death from 4th Nov. 2000 till date. Demanding to remove AFSPA, she was arrested and kept in judicial custody, continued fasting more than 10 years even in the jail. In Aug. 2001 a medical board constituted to check-up Sharmila’s condition. Some political leader “sided” and some remained “silent” meanwhile innocents’ bloods were killing around the corner of Manipur State.
2001, PREPAK prevent “Holi/Thabal Chongba” for some reason. 5(five) days from 9th March, 2001.
And later Hindi films etc. were totally banned in Manipur…
3(three) Priest gunned down by cunning Meitei based insurgency at Don Bosco Training Centre at Ngariyan Hill on 15th May 2001.
1. Rev. Father Pali Akara Rapheal (43)yrs Director,
2. Father Andreas Kindo (35) yrs Asst. and
3. Brother Shinu Joseph (25) yrs.
Jacob Chitinapilly on 2nd Dec. 2000, case was not yet recovered St. Joseph’s Parish Church Sugnu.
Sometimes majority of the Govt. Officials of Manipur are in fix-which order they should follow; the Govt. or UGs Orgns. or State Sponsoring Securities. If they defied the former, they would attract penalty and if the disobey the later, it would be the QUESTION of there lives.
Prof. Islamudin was shot death in the heart of Manipur University on……..2009.


Under Article 342 of the constitution of India, certain tribes have been specified as scheduled tribes. As per 1991 census, tribal population was 6.78 crores 8.86 crores excluding J&K as census could not be conducted due to distributed situation.
The constitution provides various safeguards in favor of ST. broadly divided into two parts-viz;

# Protection,

# Development, protective provisions are contained in articles 15 (4), 16 (4), 19 (5), 23, 29, 46, 164, 330, 332, 334, 335 & 338, 339 (1), 371 (A), 371 (B) 371 (C), Fifth & Sixth scheduled articles 15 (4), 16 (4) and 19 (5) are exception to the fundamental rights of equality and freedom guaranteed under part III of the constitution.
# Provision relating to development are contained mainly in articles 275 (1) first provision and 339 (2)
# Article 15 (4): promotion of social, economic and educational interest of backward classes, SC & ST,
# Article 16 (4): Reservation in Posts and Services,
# Article 19 (5): Safeguards Tribal interest in property,
# Article 23: Prohibition Human Trafficking, Beggar and Forced labor,
# Article 29: Cultural and Educational Rights, protection to preserve Languages, Dialects and Culture. The state would not by law enforce upon it any other culture or language,
# Article 46: Provides promotion of educational and economical interests of ST/SC and other weaker section.
# Article 330: seats shall be reserved in the House of people for ST/SC,
# Article 332: Such Reservation shall cease to have effect on the expiration of 40 years from commencement of the constitution i.e. in 1990,
# Article 335: Limits of Reservation. Claims of appointment to the services and post under the union and the states as gar as may be consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of administration.
# Article 338: Special Officers/Commissioner for SC/ST is appointed time to time reports to be given to the president of India is safeguarding the SC/ST under the constitution,
# Article 339: appointment of a commission the president may, at any time and shall, at the expiration of 10years from commencement of the constitution, by order appoint a commission to report on the administration of scheduled areas and the welfare of the ST in the states. Only one such commission, namely, scheduled areas and Scheduled Tribes commission was appointed on 28th April 1960 and it submitted its report in October 1961,
# Article 371 (A): As per provisions of this article, no Act of parliament in respect of the following matters shall apply to the state of Nagaland unless allowed by a special resolution of the Nagaland Assembly.
# Religious or Social practices of Nagas,
# Naga customary law and procedure,
# Administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according to Naga customary law,
# Ownership and transfer of land and its resources,
# Article 371 (B): provides for constitution and function of a committee Assam of the legislative Assembly of the state of elected from the Tribal areas as specified in the Sixth Scheduled and such other members of that Assembly as may be specified in the order to look after the international of the Tribal Areas at the state level,
# Article 371 (C): the president may order to provide for the constitution and function of a committee consisting of members elected from the hill areas of the state of Manipur the convener has to give annual report to the president regarding the administration of the areas.

A words to express:

1. Meitei Movements should be appreciated because for them is the last resort… Once in 18th Century Meiteis captured Ava dynasty by the help of Nagas but after the Treaty of Jandaboo signed 1826 Meiteis had to leaved the place & stop loitering around the Ava and Kabaw Valley because Maharaja of Manipur Bodhachandra Singh had made merger agreement with the Governor General Govt. of India under agreement Artcilcle (I-IX) signed by Maharaja of Manipur and Advisor to the Govt. of India Ministry of State on the 21st September 1949. But Nagas refuses to merge with India, reason why Naga club was formed in 1918…

2. In 18th century Pangals (19-numbers) were brought from Cachar-Bangladesh by the Meitei Maharaja to be his slavery. Today, Pangals are 3+Lacs populations in Manipur… I am sure if my conscience & prediction is not wrong; one bad-day, there will be a communal riot with Meiteis (Hindus) and Pangals (Muslims) will rise… believe it or not?

3. Naga Hills lays 25.2 & 25.47 & 94.52 & covers an area of 3,647 sq/miles on the North it is bounded by Sibsagar, on the West Sibsagar & the North Hills on the South by the native ranges inhabited by independent Nagas Tribes. The total sq/miles of the Nagas inhabited areas are including Assam, Arunachal, Nagaland & Manipur and Burma is 1, 16,527 sq/miles. The land of Nagas is mostly covered with dense jungles and which has a little plain area in situated in the corner of North-Eastern India. It is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh in the North, Assam in the West, Manipur in the South and Burma in the East. It has total geographical area of 1, 16,527 sq/miles.

4. Vatican City State which lies in the heart of Rome on a low hill on the West bank of the river Tiber. It is world’s smallest independent state & H/Q of Roman Catholic Church. In 1475-1564 A.D the populations of Vatican’s was 1,000 only. The covered areas are 44hectres (108.7 acres). Now, become one of the richest states in the world today. Likewise, Meiteis are covered by Hills mostly the Nagas and Chin-Mizos. Once if the Nagas problems are solved then automatically Meiteis problems too are solved. Meiteis should be proud of it because Manipur is known as a Jewel State so in the near future it will be a Gold State/Healthy Nation.

5. The administration of North Korea is linked with USSR and South Korea is with USA the people who suffers most are Korean people itselves. Likewise, someday this will happen in Manipur between Nagas and Meiteis belongst to Mongoloid race speaking Tibeto-Burman language and also may be with Kukis and Pangals if the father and son concepts of ideologies are not mutual, it is natural to live in a separate.

Lastly not the least, Meiteis want to continue & strengthen their hegemony over the TRIBAL PEOPLE. Kukis wants to establish more enmity riots with the Nagas. The homecoming of Ato Kilsonser Mr. Th. Muivah is an angel peace maker to bring peace for one and all. Let’s welcome Him instead of pointing our fingers to one eye to another. If not satisfied; let’s see who won the match, who clap hands, who observed, who ask what happen, who says and who sees the victory.

Issued in the interest of Naga Clans:
Limson Haika, Naga Task Front.

2 Replies to ““Th. Muivah’s Arrow: Limson Haika, Naga Task Front””

  1. Lets not talk about the histroy now in 2010…whatever is gone cannot be brought back….let us start with a fresh mind and solve this issue which would be better for the country…

  2. Nice cooked up essay written with the puppet hands which strings were/are controlled by GOI. History has proved time and again that this so called Naga (which was a name coined to them by British as they were naked in the past and most of them still do with the term NANGA which means NUDE in Hindi as per the interpreter of that time to British) were/are so foolish back-stabber just for the sake of some vested interest of theirs that they could/can go up to the extreme of being a puppet for whole of their lives that they can express shove up words by their string masters just like a Parrot…………so shameful, but it’s in their genes for living up in the wild being a nomad without the ability to know any real logical reasoning of what is right and wrong.

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